E.5b Further Studies of Behavior

1) Outline the rhythmical behavior pattern of the bats in autumn.

In the autumn season, the bats have relatively shorter flights occurring after sunset. These flights last shorter than flights that occur in summer or spring as the flight behavior indicated is very short.

2) (a) Compare the behavior of the bats in summer and autumn.

In both summer and autumn, the bats start to fly after sunset. In summer, the bats fly for a longer time as Figure 19 indicates that they fly up to sunrise the next morning. On average, bats fly for approximately 3 hours in summer whereas they fly around 1-2 hours in autumn.

(b) Suggest reasons for the differences in behavior.

As the summer days are relatively longer compared to autumn days, bats have less time to obtain food for survival. Due to this, the bats must make longer trips during the summer nights to obtain food as the night hours are relatively. Contrarily, during autumn, as the nights are longer, the bats have more time to make their trips to obtain food and therefore have the ability to make shorter trips.

3) Discuss whether the behavior of the serotine bats shows any rhythmical variation.

The behavior of the serotine bats does indeed show rhythmical variation. For instance, during the spring, we can see that the bats rarely fly and therefore have very few flights. Contrarily, in the summer months, we can see that their flight patterns suggest that the bats fly for long durations as they have an advantage for catching their prey then.


E.3b Innate & Learned Behavior

1) Compare sonograms I and II, which are from two populations of white-crowned sparrows.

Both I and II have similar and different sonogram patterns. For instance, both sonogram I and II have similar initial pitches as indicated by the bold black horizontal line. On the other hand, both sonograms experience rapid high-low frequencies after the initial section. After this, sonogram I produces a detached pitch whereas sonogram II continues a high-low pitch at a slower rate. Lastly, sonogram I ends in a rapid high-low pitch whereas sonogram II has no apparent continued sound towards the end.

2) (a) Compare sonogram III with sonograms I and II

Sonogram III produces a similar initial sound to that of sonograms I and II — this includes the first bold black pitch followed by the rapid high-low pitch (though sonogram III is slightly bolder). Furthermore, sonogram III produces several detached sounds unlike sonogram I or sonogram II. Finally, similar to sonogram II, sonogram III discontinues its sound towards the end.

(b) Discuss whether the song of white-crowned sparrows is innate, learned or due to both innate factors and learning

I believe that the sound of the white-crowned sparrows is innate because the sound of sonogram III is similar to sonograms I and II. Though this is the case, there are also several differences between sonogram III and I and II and therefore, we can assume that it can also be learnt to some extent.

3) (a) Compare sonogram V with sonogram IV

We can see that both sonogram V and IV have a gradually decreasing pitch from start to finish. On the other hand, sonogram IV is more broken up and detached compared to that of sonogram V. Essentially, sonogram V initiates with a long pitch whereas sonogram IV ends with a long pitch.

(b) Compare sonogram V with sonograms I and II

We can see that all three sonograms initiate with a similar pitch as shown through the bold black line. Furthermore, all three sonograms follow the high-low pitch sequence. After that, we can see that sonograms I and I become very unlike sonogram V.

(c) Suggest two reasons why birds rarely imitate other species

In terms of survival and reproduction, birds rarely imitate other species. Firstly, if birds were to imitate other species, they would be detached from their species and therefore would risk their survival. Secondly, if birds were to imitate other species, they would attract other species as mates but would be unable to reproduce with them.

(d) Discuss whether Morton and Baptista’s observation is evidence for innate or learned development of birdsong.

We can see that to an extent, evidence suggests that bird song is both innate and learnt. For instance, towards the end of sonograms IV and V, we can see that the pitches are very similar suggesting that they have been learnt.

Economics DBQ Zambian Windfall Taxing

1) The article refers to the government imposing a windfall tax on mining companies in Zambia. Explain the concept of a windfall tax.

Windfall taxes refer to taxes implemented on firms that have significantly profited from a sudden windfall gain. For the most part, these taxes apply to privatized utility firms. In context, we can see that  the Zambian government introduced the windfall tax on Zambia’s privatized mining industry.

2) Identify the reasons why the Zambian government imposed a windfall tax on the mining companies.

Considering that Zambia is a LEDC country, the windfall tax imposed on the mining companies will help improve Zambia’s infrastructure. As mentioned in the article, the money for urban roads will be coming from the windfall tax imposed on the mining companies.

3) Explain, using evidence from the article, why the Zambian government does not consider its debt situation too problematic.

As mentioned in the article, Zambia is the third least indebted country in Africa. As Zambia is increasing exports, “[they] are now one of the countries in Africa that is least indebted meaning that it has the ability to pay debt.” Furthermore, compared to Zambia’s economy during 2000, Zambia’s economy has “grown 10 folds” over the decade.

4) Examine the conditions multilateral agencies, such as the IMF or World Bank, could require the Zambian government to adopt if they were approached for a concessionary loan, and the rationale for doing so.

E.3a Innate & Learned Behavior

Suggest another method for encouraging the woodlice to move out of the syringe and into one of the arms.

Another method would be to place food in only one of the arms and not the other. On the other hand, shining light on one arm instead of the other is also a possibility.

Outline the trends shown by the data in Table 2

As shown in Table 2, most of the woodlice go towards the “scented” arm as the numbers collected in this category are near to double that of those unscented.

Deduce with a reason, the type of receptor that the woodlice must have.

Chemoreceptors — detects certain chemical stimuli in environment. Since the woodlice senses smell as a stimuli, the receptors allow for the recognition of specific molecules in the environment to which the receptors bind and in effect, direct the woodlice towards the smell.

Discuss, in terms of survival and reproduction, the possible reasons for the woodlice entering:

(a) the scented arm of the apparatus — Sexually speaking, the woodlice have a reproductory advantage by moving towards the scented arm as there can be potential mates.

(b) the unscented arm of the apparatus – On the other hand, moving towards the unscented arm increases chances of survival as there is potentially less competition.

4.4 Role of International Trade

Question 1 What is the role of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in the governance of world trade? You may find the WTO web site helpful in considering this.

The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed to organise trade between countries and oversee the negotiations. Essentially, to achieve “free trade” the WTO was established to reduce barriers to trade between different nations.

Question 2 Discuss the impact that membership of the WTO is likely to have on the Vietnamese economy.

The effect of Vietnam joining the WTO has both benefits and disadvantages for the Vietnamese economy. With the inclusion in the WTO, Vietnamese benefits in two major ways. Firstly, the Vietnamese economy gains more access to foreign goods and services through overseas markets. In essence, this will allow for innovation and technology in Vietnam’s local market as foreign competition will help strengthen Vietnamese enterprises. Over the long run, we can see this to be an advantage to Vietnam’s economy as efficiency and productivity rise. Furthermore, due to lower barriers of trade between WTO countries, quotas on exports of  cereal crops and vegetation would be removed allowing Vietnam to export more. In effect, we can expect GDP to increase. (WHY?) On the other hand, through the membership of the WTO, investments in Vietnam will be boosted. Intel has stated that they would boost their initial investment from $300 million to $1 billion. Contrarily, the Vietnamese economy is also at a disadvantage as they join the WTO. For instance, though Vietnam is a developing country, they must lower their import tariffs. In effect, this would increase competition in the local market over the short-run. Furthermore, this decreased tariff would result in cheaper and better imports and therefore potentially more favorable in the domestic market.

Question 3 Use a suitable Internet search tool (e.g. Google news) to analyse the impact that recent actions of the WTO have had on the world trading system.

The effect of Turkey’s policies on import of cotton yarn has caused the Indian government to file a trade complaint.

Are there losers?

Richer nations vs poorer nations

Lecture 1: E.1 Stimulus and Response

1) Does the world sound the same to any of the animals? 

No. The world sounds different to every animal as animals have different receptors to detect different stimuli. For instance, humans have mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors and photoreceptors. On the other hand, if we take a look at Figure 3, we can see that the frequency sensitivity of the six land animals are also different. For instance, the solid area of the frequency of the human and the bat are located in different positions suggesting that sensitivity to it varies.

2) Which is the real world-the one we perceive or the world perceived by the bat?

I believe that this open-ended question is debatable but ultimately, the real world is not controlled by one single organism and therefore, it’s not a matter of specific perceptions. In essence, there are several sounds that only human’s can hear due to the frequency of the sound waves but there are also several sounds that we cannot hear. For instance, a fairly high pitched frequency cannot be heard by certain age groups of adults (generally). Therefore, I do not believe that the real world is perceived by either us or the bat because there are sounds that both organisms cannot hear.

3) Animals also differ considerably in their visual perception. Is what each animal sees what is really there, is it a construction of reality, or is reality a false concept?


Data Response 4.2 Measuring Economic Development

Identify the indicators of development the article identifies as priorities for the Cuban government

Easy and efficient access to health care as well as quality of health care because half of all their currency goes towards the medical program.

Examine the evidence in the article that suggests the inhabitants of Cuba experience low livings standards.

The article states that, “there is no gasoline in Cuba to fill the car up before heading off to work in the morning, and [the Cubans] don’t have meat for lunch everywhere, but at least the people are healthy.” Contrary to the concept of supply and demand, Cuban citizens do not have the opportunity to purchase basic necessities due to the fact that the government does not distribute and allocate goods and services based on the concept of supply and demand. In essence, since Cuba is a communist nation, Keyensian policies must be heavily in act and therefore a free market probably would not exist. Though the health care is top notch in Cuba, the evidence suggests that the average Cubans cannot even afford meat or gasoline and therefore we can see that the inhabitants experience low living standards.

Analyse the advantages and disadvantages to the Cuban economy as a result of allocating resources to the health sector.

There are both advantages and disadvantages to the Cuban economy as a result of allocating resources to the health sector. The advantage of allocating resources to the health sector has great benefits to the work sector of Cuba as labor and medical exports are efficient. For instance, by allocating resources to the health sector, we can assume that the Cuban labor force would be productive and efficient. This is because less workers would become ill. Though this is the case, many Cuban’s barely have enough food to eat as the article explains they “jam in lines at stores to exchange food stamps for groceries.” On the other hand, Cuba’s economy also benefits from allocation of resources to health sector through medical exports. For instance, the article reports that, “8,000 modest citizens of Russia and Ukraine have undergone treatment in Cuba.” In essence, this suggests that Cuba’s economy positively benefits as GDP rises.

Contrarily, there are several disadvantages of the Cuban economy allocating several resources to the health sector. This can be explained through the concept of opportunity cost. Rather than allocating resources to the health sector, more emphasis can be placed on food rationing so that the Cuban citizens have enough to eat. On the other hand, the education sector can also be improved if resources were allocated differently. In effect, this can potentially benefit Cuba’s generally healthy yet poor citizens.
Ultimately, we can see that there are both pros as cons to reallocating resources in Cuba’s economy. I believe that over the long run, it would be more efficient for Cuba to expand and reallocate resources to various other sectors of te economy for the welfare of the Cuban citizens.